Volunteer Risk Management is being aware of liability issues. When dealing with volunteers, managers need to look out for the liability of the volunteer, liability of the agency to the volunteer, and the liability of the agency because of the actions of the volunteer. Therefore, the manager have to make sure the patrons and volunteer is safe from harm. This Website points to sources that are on this topic and how to protect your organization.
A wonderful place to start is the Nonprofit Risk Center's tutorial on Risk Management
Nonprofit Basics and Advice from the Nonprofit Risk Center:
The four steps to reducing risk when dealing with volunteers are:
1. Identify risks for each volunteer position
2. Screen volunteers based on the positions risk
3. Train staff and volunteers
4. Review and update programs
1. Identify the Risks: Have Volunteer Position Descriptions and Policies already in Place
The first step is to evaluate your own programs and procedures, and to identify the possible risks.
Ask key questions:
What can go wrong? What surprises could we encounter in each of our programs? What steps can we take to avoid such problems (more training, staff, etc.)? What will we do if something goes wrong? And how will we pay for it?
Use the following flow chart to help identify risks:
State of Oregon: Risk Management Division: Risk Assessment Tools:
http://www.oregon.gov/DAS/Risk/docs/riskroadmap.pdf (Flow Chart)
http://egov.oregon.gov/DAS/Risk/index.shtml (Main Page)
Even before you recruit volunteers you need to identify risks and write policies and procedures to guide the volunteer and reduce the likelihood of problems. Volunteer position descriptions are a great way to let the organization express the kind of qualities they are looking for, as well as giving the volunteer a chance to evaluate the job and organization.
Articles about developing position description / volunteer policies:
"Benefits of Policies" By Linda L. Graff
"How to Write an Effective Position Description" By Laura Gassner Otting
"Designing Effective Volunteer Positions" Point of Light Foundation
Sample Policy Forms:
CASA: Sample Volunteer Management Policies
National & Community Service (NSRC): Sample Form Collection
Volunteer BC: Examples of Volunteer policies for key issues (i.e. harassment)
Volunteer Position Template:
2. Screen / Interview your volunteers
Interviewing and Screening volunteers not only protects your organization it is also a way to increase the efficiency of placement.
Articles about Volunteer Screening:
Article on "Volunteer Screening" by the Points of Light Foundation:
Nonprofit Risk Center: "Checking Criminal Histories"
Tip Sheet: See, Steps to Volunteer Screening online (Missouri)
3. Orientation/Training of Volunteers/Supervision
Make sure the staff and new volunteers understand the duties, rules, and policies to avoid any miscommunications. Additionally, train your staff in Risk preparedness.
Energize: Volunteer Training
Charity Village: Orientation Checklist
Successful Strategies for Recruiting, Training, and Utilizing Volunteers
Always, review to ensure the programs and training are working. Continually update training to include new or reoccurring problems that are found within the organization.
Sample Volunteer review form:
Final Note: Know your policies & the law:
Liability Basics for Nonprofit Organizations:
A Legal Handbook for Nonprofit Corporation Volunteers
The Volunteer Protection Act (Public Law 105-19)
Understanding the Volunteer Protection Act 1997 (Risk Management Resource Center)
Missouri Volunteer Immunity Law (§537.118)
Sources for more information
Family-Friendly Volunteering: A Guide for Agencies.
McCurley, Stephen. Washington, DC: The Points of Light Foundation, 1999.
A Golden opportunity : managing the risks of service to seniors.
Cheshire, CT: Housing Authority Insurance Group; Washington, DC: Nonprofit Risk Management Center, 2003.
Managing Risk in Nonprofit Organizations: A Comprehensive Guide
Herman, Melanie L. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.
No surprises: harmonizing risk and reward in volunteer management.
Herman, Melanie L. Washington, D.C.: Nonprofit Risk Management Center, 2004.
Ready in defense: a liability, litigation and legal guide for nonprofits.
Herman, Melanie L. Washington, DC: Nonprofit Risk Management Center: PERI, c2003.
Screening Volunteers to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse: A Community Guide for Youth Organizations
National Collaboration for Youth (NYC), 1997.
The season of hope : a risk management guide for youth-serving nonprofits.
Patterson, John C. Washington, DC: Nonprofit Risk Management Center,c2002.
What We Learned (the hard way) About Supervising Volunteers: An Action Guide for Making your Job Easier.
Lee, Jarene Frances. New York: Wiley, 1997.